by Dinesh Thakur Category: HTML

In 1986 the International Organization for Standardization released ISO 8879 entitled 'Information Processing - Text and Office Systems - Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML). Although this defined a standard for the first time nothing much happened after that, mainly because no-one knew what to do with it. Then Tim Berners-Lee invented the World Wide Web and suddenly the demand was there.

by Dinesh Thakur Category: HTML

Doctype is a piece of code that goes in the first line of an HTML webpage. Don't worry about what's in it just recognize that this line is a Doctype. And I said 'a' Doctype as the fun part is there are a whole bunch of them. Which is why it is so important for you to understand which type pertains to your website.

by Dinesh Thakur Category: HTML

Two attributes "rowspan" and "colspan" are used to combine adjoining cells into larger cells. These attributes are used in either <TH> or <TD> tags and accepts a number as value. For rowspan attribute this number indicates the number of rows a cell should take up and for colspan the number of columns the cell should span. In both the cases the present cell is included in counting.

by Dinesh Thakur Category: HTML

URL, is a fancy name for address. Each file on the Internet has a unique URL. The first part of the URL is called the protocol. It tells the browser how to deal with the file that it is about to open. One of the most common protocols you will see it HTTP, or Hypertext Transfer Protocol.

by Dinesh Thakur Category: HTML

In general, when a visitor clicks the "submit" button, two things are sent to the server: the data that the visitor typed into the form, and an action, which basically tells .the server the name of the program, which knows how to process the form's data.

by Dinesh Thakur Category: HTML

An HTML form is a section of a web document into which the user can enter information. This information is passed back to a web server where it might be recorded in a database for future use or perhaps used to control what information is returned to the user.

by Dinesh Thakur Category: HTML

To access the form elements the user either clicks the mouse or uses the tab key. You can give your visitors a direct keyboard access by using access key attribute. This attribute specifies the character that you assign to the form element as a particular hot key. When the key is pressed together with the "alt" key, the corresponding form element gets activated.

by Dinesh Thakur Category: HTML

<FIELDSET>tag creates a box around a group of widgets and <LEGEND>tag provides a label to the field set. Both tags require closing tags.

by Dinesh Thakur Category: HTML

The input "type" = hidden is unusual in the respect that they do not appear in the displayed form. By setting the "type" attribute to hidden, it is possible to transmit default or previously specified text that is hidden from the user to the handling program.

by Dinesh Thakur Category: HTML

HTML also supports a special input field, a file field, to allow visitors to upload files. If you want visitors to submit information - say a picture, a spreadsheet, a word-processed document or a scanned document, they can use this field to simply upload the file with the hassle of using FTP or e-mail the file.

by Dinesh Thakur Category: HTML

SUBMIT- After filling up the form, the user needs to submit the information. An <INPUT> tag with type = submit provides a button that submits the information in the completed form to the URL, given as the action attribute of the FORM tag.

by Dinesh Thakur Category: HTML

A pull down menu lets the user select one choice out of many possible choices. One nice aspect of pull-down menus is that all choices do not have to be seen on the screen and are normally hidden. They occupy minimal amount of space as it displays only on item of the list. In this kind of input field you use <SELECT>instead of <INPUT> and it has a closing tag.

by Dinesh Thakur Category: HTML

This tag defines an input area within a form. It asks the user to input information in one of several ways. The different ways of input are specified by "type attribute. This attribute can accept text, radio, checkbox, passwords submit, reset, image, hidden, etc. as its value. Each of them will be discussed separately in the coming sections.

by Dinesh Thakur Category: HTML

Before we go on to explain hyperlinks, let us try to differentiate linear and non-linear text.


As the name suggests relates to a straight line. So linear information is information that progresses in a straight line, beginning at point X and ending at point Y with a certain path in between. A linear text therefore develops its context from everything that has come before. Take the example of a Novel. One begins at a certain page and proceeds to the end, receiving the plot and characters in the order they were intended so that by the end everything makes sense. If one picks up pages randomly novel will be read but no real concept of the book will be obtained.

Non Linear

The concept of non-linear information is different. Instead of following a sequence, random selection can be made. Magazines and dictionaries are good examples of resources of non-linear information. One can randomly go through a particular article of a magazine or look up for a particular word in the dictionary, This form of reading is non-linear, as one does not have to read the intervening pages between the commencements of the magazine to the point where the article starts off.

A musical cassette tape is an example of linear information whereas a musical CD is that of a resource providing information in a non-linear format.


The Worldwide web is an example of Non-linear system. In the world of hypertext information is chunked into small and manageable units called nodes. Links are embedded in these nodes so that one can move from one hypertext document to another. There are two categories of links.

External links: These are links to files not on your own site.

Internal links: These are links to files that are part of your site.

These links connecting different hypertext documents are called hyperlinks (hypertext links).

The process of navigating among the nodes by using their links is called browsing. A collection of nodes interconnected by hyperlinks is called a web which makes the www a global hypertext system. Without hyperlinks the web would be a bunch of separate and unrelated files instead of the coherent and interlocking whole. Hyperlinks are often used so that web sites can be broken into several different HTML pages, all of which are linked to each other.

Every hyperlink has two components: the source and the destination. For instance in the link denoted by <a href = ""> the destination of the link is the yahoo website. The source end of the link is the HTML document, which contains this code.

The browser distinguishes Hyperlinks from normal text. Every hyperlink,

• Appears blue in color

    The default color setting in a browser for hyperlink text or image.

    The color can be set dynamically via on HTML program if required.

• The hyperlink text/image is underlined.

• When the mouse cursor is placed over it, the standard arrow shaped mouse cursor changes to the shape of a hand.

The blue color, which appears by default, can be over-ridden. The following Table shows the text and link color attributes available in HTML.



Text = " " Sets the color of all text within the document with a color name of #RRGGBB value.
Alink = " "
Changes the default color of a hyperlink that is activated to whatever color is specified with this tag. The user can specify the color name or an equivalent hexadecimal number.
Vlink = " "
Changes the default color of a hyper link that is already visited to whatever color is specified with this tag.
Link = " "
Changes the default color of a hyperlink to whatever color is specified with this tag. The user can specify the color name of an equivalent hexadecimal number.

Whenever colors are specified using hexadecimal numbers, it combines proportions of Red, Green and Blue - called RGB numbers. RGB numbers use six digits, two for each proportion of red, green and blue.

Uniform Resource Locator

URL, is a fancy name for address. Each file on the Internet has a unique URL.

The first part of the URL is called the protocol. It tells the browser how to deal with the file that it is about to open. One of the most common protocols you will see it HTTP, or Hypertext Transfer Protocol.

The second part of the URL is the name of the server where the file is located, followed by the path that leads to the file and the file's name itself, as illustrated below:

protocol//Server Name/ Path/File Name

Sometimes, a URL ends in a trailing forward slash with no file name given, as below.


In this case the URL refers to the default file in the last directory in the path, which is a file named "index.html." An equivalent URL to the one above would be

Absolute URLs

URLs can be either absolute or relative. An absolute URL shows the entire path to the file, including the protocol, server name, the complete path and the file name itself. An absolute URL is analogous to a complete street address; no matter where the letter is sent from, the post office will be able to find the recipient. In terms of URLs, this means that the location of the absolute URL itself has no bearing on the location of the actual file referenced. If you are from someone else's server, you need to use an absolute URL. The URL's above are all absolute.

Relative URLs

Relative URLs are analogous to giving directions to someone such as “go down the hall and turn right." In other words, the directions refer to where you are starting from. In the same way a relative URL describes the location of the desired file with reference to the location of the file that contains the URL itself.

For example, a relative URL for a file that is in the same directory as the current file (that is, the one with the link that points to that file) is merely the name and extension, such as:  "index.html"

You create a URL for a file in a subdirectory of the current directory by placing the name of the subdirectory first and following it with a forward slash and then the name and extension of the desired file, as shown below.

Inside the current folder,"fun/file.html",there is a folder that contains called "fun" a file named "file.html".

To reference a file in a directory at a higher level of the file hierarchy, use two periods (.. ) as shown below.

The folder that contains the current folder contains "../images/image.gif" a folder ...a file called "images" "image.gif" that contains ...

You can combine and repeat the two periods and forward slash to reference any file on the same server as the current file.

The Anchor Element

Anchors elements are used to link multiple HTML documents. It requires only one tag viz., the <A> tag. It occurs only in the body of an HTML document. If an anchor is used to turn text into a hyperlink, the text is usually colored blue and underlined.


<A href =" " > Content </A>

If you want to create a hyperlink   which will take the user to a different page href or hypertext reference is mandatory. For without it, the anchor will not function as a hyperlink.

Hyperlinks can be of two type:

(1) Links to an external document

(2) Links to a specified place within the same document.

External Document References

It links the source document to a specific external document


< A href = "main.htm"> Home </ A>

 Here "HOME" becomes a hyperlink and links to another document. "Main.htm" which is present in the current working directory. If the file is not present in the current directory a relative or absolute path can be specified.

By default a hyper link takes a user to the beginning of the new web page. At times it might be necessary to jump to a particular location within the new web page. To enable a jump to a specific location in a web page, Named Anchors can be set up.

Named Anchors

Named Anchors are used to create links to a specific location within a page Jumping to a particular location on a web page can be summarized in two steps.

Step 1 : Mark the location to be jumped to i.e. identify the location in a web page to jump to by giving the location a name.

The "Name" attribute of <A> tag does this

<A Name = "Location-name" >
< A Name = "location 1">

This identifies to jump at location l

Step 2: While jumping to a specific web page and a specific location on the web page, in addition to the name of the web page to be jumped to, the name of the location on the web page to go to is required.

A web page will really be contained in an HTML file. Hence the web page to jump to really requires a filename. ·htm, together with the name of the location to jump to in the HTML file. This is done as follows;


<A href = "file_name. Htm # location_name" > </A>

<A href= "Main.htm # location 1" > Home </ A> Home becomes a hotspot and leads to a location named location 1" in the file "Main.htm".

The following lines of code show the use of external links:


<head><title>external links </title></head>
<h2><p>discover more about dreamweaver 4 </p></h2>
<a href="d:\code\lntro\dll.htm#one">what's new in dreamweaver 4 </a><br><br>
<a href="d:\code\ol 1.htm#two">dreamweaver web site </a><br><br>
<a href="d:\code\ol2. htm#three">dreamweaver exchange</a><br><br>
<a href="d:\code\ol3.htm#four">release notes</a><br><br>

by Dinesh Thakur Category: HTML

An Ordered list is one that is numbered and may also be used to indicate sequential form of information. <ol> and </ol> are opening and closing tags for an ordered list respectively. The code used for ordering the List as below:

by Dinesh Thakur Category: HTML

A table is an orderly arrangement of data distributed across a grid of rows and columns similar to a spreadsheet. In printed documents, tables commonly serve a subordinate function, illustrating some point described by accompanying text. Tables still perform this illustrative function in HTML documents.

by Dinesh Thakur Category: HTML

Unordered lists are used to represent a set of items that have a relation among themselves but do not follow a specific order. The syntax is same as that of ordered list, only <ol> and </ol> tags are replaced by <ul> and </ul>.

by Dinesh Thakur Category: HTML

The Common Gateway Interface (CGI) is a specification defined by the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C), defining how a program interacts with a Hyper Text Transfer Protocol (HTTP) server. The Common Gateway Interface (CGI) provides the middleware between WWW servers and external databases and information sources. CGI applications perform specific information processing, retrieval, and formatting tasks on behalf of WWW servers.

by Dinesh Thakur Category: HTML

A frame is an independent scrolling region or window, of a web page. A framed document divides a browser window into multiple panes or smaller window frames. Each frame may contain a different document. Frames can communicate with each other so that an action performed on a page in one frame can change the contents and behavior of another frame.

by Dinesh Thakur Category: HTML

The label is used to insert images: <img>. This tag consists of a single instruction and so </ img> does not exist and their use is prohibited. We can insert an image in mid sentence as if it were a word of it and will be displayed by the browser after the text.


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About Dinesh Thakur

Dinesh ThakurDinesh Thakur holds an B.C.A, MCSE, MCDBA, CCNA, CCNP, A+, SCJP certifications. Dinesh authors the hugely popular blog. Where he writes how-to guides around Computer fundamental , computer software, Computer programming, and web apps. For any type of query or something that you think is missing, please feel free to Contact us.